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Summary Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people. It is very critical during crisis since it helps in managing a crisis at a time of chaos and causalities.

Examples: This 2011 book by Aliza Sherman offers an introduction to understanding crowdsourcing. To see how crowdsourcing can help in natural disasters, a starting point could be "Crowdsourcing Geographic Information for Disaster Response: A Research Frontier" which looks into sharing data and the usefulness of crowdsourcing in four wildfires that impacted the Santa Barbara area in 2007–2009

There are a number of Software and Tools out there that help in making crowdsourcing an easier process. An important example tool is Ushahidi, a free and open-source platform that allows interested individuals and groups to create live, interactive maps. It is a platform can be used to combine citizen reporting with mapping and visualization tools to create a crisis map—a realtime, dynamic, multifaceted snapshot of how a crisis is evolving. The paper "Crowdsourcing or Crisis Mapping in Haiti" shows how Ushahidi was developed and implemented for the purpose of crowdsourcing in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The effectiveness and reliability of crowdsourced information are other aspects that are looked into by publications such as "Gaps in the Net..." which questions if crowdsourced reporting resulted in creating an inequality in the response to crises by drawing undue attention to certain regions and leaving other vulnerable areas under represented.

" Verifying Crowdsourced Social Media Reports for Live Crisis Mapping: An Introduction to Information Forensics" on the other hand, argues that information gained from crowdsourcing is useful and that concrete strategies do exist for the verification of geo-referenced crowdsourced social media information, thus suggesting that crowdsourced information can, to a certain extent, be considered reliable.

Guidelines Included are publications that address information sharing and collaborations that includes large groups of people

Title Author(s) Date Citation Count
A Decentralized Security Framework for Web-Based Social Networks Barbara Carminati 2011 17
A new way to communicate with residents: Local government use of social media to prepare for emergencies C Chavez
M A Repas
T Stefaniak
2010 11
A vision for technology-mediated support for public participation & assistance in mass emergencies & disasters L Palen
M K Anderson
G Mark
J Martin
D Sicker
M Palmer
D Grunwald
2010 110
Accessing hidden and hard-to-reach populations: Snowball research strategies R Atkinson
J Flint
2001 644
An Interview With Michael Goodchild: GIScience and Social Reordering in the New Millennium Nadine Schuurman 16 February 2008
An Issue of Trust David Quainton 2007
An online social network for emergency management Connie White
Linda Plotnick
Jane Kushma
Starr Roxanne Hiltz
Murray Turoff
2009 74
Another tool in the toolbox Alf Ellesfen
Marinne Donven
Steve Burnbuam
Simon Genin
Isaac Kwamy
Keith Robertory
7 June 2012
AsonMaps: A Platform for Aggregation Visualization and Analysis of Disaster Related Human Sensor Network Observations Oleg Aulov
Adam Price
Milton Halem
18 May 2014
Beacons of hope in decentralized coordination: learning from on-the-ground medical twitterers during the 2010 Haiti earthquake A Sarcevic
L Palen
J White
K Starbird
M Bagdouri
K Anderson
11 February 2012 21
Behind the map: crises , crisis collectives in high-tech actions Fiona Gedeon Achi May 2012
Beyond the web : the emerging role of social media tools for public safety communications Alan R Shark 1 February 2010
Big Crisis Data: Social Media in Disasters and Time-Critical Situations Carlos Castillo 14 July 2016
Blogs as a collective war diary Gloria Mark
Mossaab Bagdouri
Leysia Palen
James Martin
Ban Al-Ani
Kenneth Anderson
2012 12
Chatter on the red: what hazards threat reveals about the social life of microblogged information K Starbird
L Palen
A L Hughes
S Vieweg
2010 194
Citizen communications in crisis: anticipating a future of ICT-supported public participation L Palen
S B Liu
28 April 2007 181
Citizen photojournalism during crisis events S B Liu
L Paten
J Sutton
A L Hughes
S Vieweg
2009 9
Citizens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography M F Goodchild 20 November 2007 1,402
Collective intelligence in disaster : examination of the phenomenon in the aftermath of the 2007 Virginia Tech shooting Sarah Vieweg
Leysia Palen
Sophia B Liu
Amanda L Hughes
Jeannette N Sutton
May 2008
Community response grids: E-government, social networks, and effective emergency management P T Jaeger
B schneiderman
K R Fleischmann
J Preece
Y Qu
P Fei Wu
2007 87
Community-oriented emergency communications: harnessing the power of citizen information David R Paulison October 2010
Constructive Convergence: Imagery and Humanitarian Assistance Doug Hanchard 2012
Crisis Management and Mobile Devices: Extending Usage of Sensor Networks within an Integrated System Framework E A Gomez
M Bartolacci
2011 5
Crisis Mapping Community Social Media Information During and After Large-Scale Disasters in Victoria Stephen Berselli 2012 1
Crisis Mapping: A Phenomenon and Tool in Emergencies Myriam Dunn Cavelty
Jennifer Giroux
November 2011 3
Crisis media revolution : more jurisdictions look beyond press releases and radio bulletins to spread the word when disaster strikes Hilton Collins July 2009
Crisis response communication management: increasing message clarity with training over time E A Gomez May 3008 6
CrisisTracker: Crowdsourced Social Media Curation for Disaster Awareness Jakob Rogstadius
Maja Vukovic
Claudio Teixeira
Vassilis Kostakos
Evangelos Karapanos
Jim Laredo
2013 8
Crowdsourced crisis mapping: how it works and why it matters Marta Poblet
Pompeu Casanovas
16 May 2012
Crowdsourced data is not a substitute for real statistics Patrick Ball
Jeff Klinger
Kristian Lum
Crowdsourcing Linked Open Data for Disaster Management Jens Ortmann
Minu Limbu
Dong Wang
And Tomi Kauppinen
2011 22
Crowdsourcing Rare Events: Using Beauty to Draw Participants into Science and Early Warning Systems Andrea H. Tapia
Nicolas LaLone
Elizabeth MacDonald
Reid Priedhorsky
Michelle Hall
18 May 2014
Crowdsourcing Rare Events: Using Curiosity to Draw Participants into Science and Early Warning Systems Andrea Tapia
Nicolas Lalone
Elizabeth MacDonald
Reid Priedhorsky
Michelle Hall
18 May 2014
Crowdsourcing crisis information in disaster-affected Haiti Jessica Heinzelman
Carol Waters
United sates Institute of Peace
29 September 2010 53
Crowdsourcing earthquake damage assessment using remote sensing imagery Luke Barrington
Shubharoop Ghosh
Marjorie Greene
Shay Har-Noy
Jay Berger
Stuart Gill
Albert Yu-Min Lin
Charles Huyck
23 July 2011 15
Crowdsourcing for Crisis Mapping in Haiti Ida Norheim Hagtun
Patrick Meier
2010 12
Crowdsourcing geographic information for disaster response: a research frontier Michael F. Goodchild
J. Alan Glennon
7 March 2010 212
Crowdsourcing in the Quaternary sea level community: insights from the Pliocene Alessio Rovere
Maureen E. Raymoa
M.J. O’Leary
P.J. Hearty
21 November 2012 2
Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples Maged N Kamel Boulos
Bernd Resch
David N Crowley
John G Breslin
Gunho Sohn
Russ Burtner
William A Pike
Eduardo Jezierski
Kuo-Yu Slayer Chuang
Deriving user requirements for a CBRNE support system Gitte Lindgaard
Patrick Noonan
Devjani Sen
Cathy Dudek
Milica Stojmenovic
Bruce Tsuji
Sonny Lundahl
Donn MacMillan
Peter Seguin
2 May 2010 1
Design and implementation of a data analytics infrastructure in support of crisis informatics research: NIER track K M Anderson
A Schram
Developing a System for Information Management in Disaster Relief - Methodology and Requirements Martin Frassl
Michael Lichtenstern
Mohammed Khider
2 May 2010 18
Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response Patrick Meier 24 January 2015
Disaster Relief 2.0: towards a multipolar system Patrick Meier 2010
Disaster relief 2.0: the future of information sharing in humanitarian emergencies John Crowly
Jennifer Chan
2011 72
Disaster response preparedness coordination through social networks Liaquat Hossain
Matthew Kutti
July 2010 22
Disasters2.0 : application of web 2.0 technologies in emergency situations Julio Camarero
Carlos A Iglesias
May 2009 5
Earthquake Twitter P S Earle 2010 15
Exploring Decision-Relevant Information Pooling by Humanitarian Disaster Response Teams Willem Muhren
Damir Durbic
Bartel Van de Walle
2 May 2010 2
Following the crowd Samuel Greengard 2011 55
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