Situational Awareness

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Summary Situational awareness is the perception of environmental elements with respect to time and/or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status after some variable has changed, such as time, or some other variable, such as a predetermined event. It is also a field of study concerned with perception of the environment critical to decision-makers in complex, dynamic areas from aviation, air traffic control, power plant operations, military command and control, and emergency services such as fire fighting and policing; to more ordinary but nevertheless complex tasks such as driving an automobile or bicycle.

Situational awareness involves being aware of what is happening in the vicinity, in order to understand how information, events, and one's own actions will impact goals and objectives, both immediately and in the near future.

Examples: In humanitarian computing, this can be understood as using computers or computer software applications to help spread current environment information and happenings to people as well as to relief workers during a disaster or crisis under the perception of environmental elements with respect to time and/or space, and not after it. In order to understand various types of situational awareness, a good starting point is "A Core Ontology for Situation Awareness" which provides an ontology representation of various scenarios of situational awareness.

Situational awareness is an active research topic. Since information exchanged with decision makers in the field during a crisis could have a significant impact on how response efforts are carried out, it should be as correct as possible. An example is the paper titled "Information Quality Criteria and Their Importance for Experts in Crisis Situations" which describes an approach to defining a criterion to assess the information quality of critical information available for decision-making officers in charge during complex situations.

Guidelines Included are publications that focus on topics that involve making on-the-field people (victims, aid workers, emergency responders, etc) more aware of the situation at hand in order to help them to understand what is happening on the ground

Title Author(s) Date Citation Count
A Core Ontology for Situation Awareness Christopher J. Matheus
Mieczyslaw M. Kokar
Kenneth Baclawski
2003 189
A Disruption-Tolerant Architecture for Secure and Efficient Disaster Response Communications Kevin Fall
Gianluca Iannaccone
Jayanthkumar Kannan
Fernando Silveira
Nina Taft
2 May 2010 17
A Framework for Analyzing Collective Action Events on Twitter Kartikeya Bajpai
Anuj R. Jaiswal
8 May 2011 10
A GIS Approach to Equipment Allocation for Structural Stabilization and Civilian Rescue Albert Y. Chen
Feniosky A. Peña-Mora
Saumil J. Mehta
Stuart Foltz
Albert P.Plans
Brian R. Brauer
2 May 2010 3
A Rule-Based System for Contextualized Information Delivery Beibei Hu
Jan Hidders
Marc de Lignie
Philipp Cimiano
8 May 2011 1
A Sensitive Twitter Earthquake Detector Bella Robinson
Robert Power
Mark Cameron
14 May 2013 3
A Strategy Evaluation Framework Based on Dynamic Vulnerability Assessments Thomas Münzberg
Marcus Wiens
Frank Schultmann
18 May 2014
A typology to facilitate multi-agency coordination Steven Curnin
Christine Owen
May 2013
Aligning Border Security Workflow and Decision Making With Supporting Information and Communication Systems Robin Mays
Mark Zachry
Alper Murat
Mark Haselkorn
8 May 2011
An Interaction Approach to Enhance Situational Awareness and the Production of Anticipatory Actions in Emergency Operation Centers Richard Arias-Hernandez
Brian Fisher
May 2013
AsonMaps: A Platform for Aggregation Visualization and Analysis of Disaster Related Human Sensor Network Observations Oleg Aulov
Adam Price
Milton Halem
18 May 2014
Capturing the Netherlands Coast Guards Sar Workflow With Itasks Bas Lijnse
Jan Jansen
Ruud Nanne
Rinus Plasmeijer
8 May 2011
Citizens' Observatories for Situation Awareness in Flooding Vitaveska Lanfranchi
Stuart N. Wrigley
Neil Ireson
Fabio Ciravegna
Uta Wehn
18 May 2014
Collaborative Option Awareness for Emergency Response Decision Making Yikun Liu
Sung Pil Moon
Mark Pfaff
Jill Drury
Gary Klein
8 May 2011 6
Command & Control: Information Merging, Selective Visualization and Decision Support for Emergency Handling Menelaos Bakopoulos
Sofia Tsekeridou
Eri Giannaka
Zheng-Hua Tan
Ramjee Prasad
8 May 2011 6
Community Driven Data Integration for Emergency Response Naveen Ashish
Sharad Mehrotra
2 May 2010
Comparing Web Feeds and Tweets for Emergency Management Robert Power
Bella Robinson
Catherine Wise
14 May 2013 1
Comparing performance and situation awareness in USAR unit tasks in a virtual and real environment Corine H.G. Horsch
Nanja J. J. M. Smets
Mark A. Neerincx
Raymond H. Cuijpers
May 2013 1
Computerized System to Enhance Situation Awareness: Key Challenges Associated with the Design, Evaluation, and Extension of a Prototype Yasir Javed
Tony Norris
May 2013
CrisisTracker: Crowdsourced Social Media Curation for Disaster Awareness Jakob Rogstadius
Maja Vukovic
Claudio Teixeira
Vassilis Kostakos
Evangelos Karapanos
Jim Laredo
2013 8
Decision making in humanitarian logistics – A multi-objective optimization model for relocating relief goods during disaster recovery operations Beate Rottkemper
Kathrin Fischer
May 2013
Delay Tolerant Disaster Communication with the One Laptop Per Child XO Laptop Daniel Iland
Don Voita
Elizabeth Belding
May 2013
Deriving user requirements for a CBRNE support system Gitte Lindgaard
Patrick Noonan
Devjani Sen
Cathy Dudek
Milica Stojmenovic
Bruce Tsuji
Sonny Lundahl
Donn MacMillan
Peter Seguin
2 May 2010 1
Dialogical Emergency Management and Strategic Awareness in Emergency Communication Henrik Artman
Joel Brynielsson
Björn Johansson
Jiri Trnka
8 May 2011 6
Disaster Operations and Decision Making Roger C Huder 2012
Does the spatiotemporal distribution of tweets match the spatiotemporal distribution of flood phenomena? A study about the River Elbe Flood in June 2013 Benjamin Herfort
Svend-Jonas Schelhorn
João Porto de Albuquerque
Alexander Zipf
18 May 2014
ESA: emergency situation awareness via microbloggers Jie Yin
Sarvnaz Karimi
Bella Robinson
Mark Cameron
2012 6
Evaluation of a Software Prototype for Supporting Fire Emergency Response Raj Prasanna
Lili Yang
Malcolm King
8 May 2011 6
Event Definition for the Application of Event Processing to Intelligent Resource Management Jens Pottebaum
Alexander Artikis
Robin Marterer
Georgios Paliouras
Rainer Koch
8 May 2011 6
Exploring Shared Situational Awareness using Serious Gaming for Supply Chain Disruptions Shalini Kurapati
Gwendolyn Kolfschoten
Alexander Verbraeck
Thomas M. Corsi
Frances Brazier
May 2013
Fusing Non-Authoritative Data to Improve Situational Awareness in Emergencies Chris Oxendine
Emily Schnebele
Guido Cervone
Nigel Waters
18 May 2014
Identifying and Supporting Information Needs in Mass Casualty Incidents – an Interdisciplinary Approach Aygul Gabdulkhakova
Birgitta König-Ries
Mareike Mähler
Yeliz Yildirim
Fabian Wucholt
8 May 2011 3
Impact of the distribution and enrichment of information on the coordination of a human-made fast-burning crisis Brugghemans Bert
Milis Koen
Van de Walle Bartel
May 2013
Information Quality Criteria and Their Importance for Experts in Crisis Situations Therese Friberg
Stephan Prödel
Rainer Koch
8 May 2011 5
Information Systems to Support Disaster Planning and Response: Problem Diagnosis and Research Gap Analysis Magiswary Dorasamy
Murali Raman
8 May 2011 7
Mining Conversations of Geographically Changing Users Liam McNamara
Christian Rohner
17 April 2012
Mobile Tracking and Location Awareness in Disaster Relief and Humanitarian Assistance Situations Drew Q Abell September 2012
Multidisciplinary Cooperation in Crisis Management Teams: a Tool to Improve Team Situation Awareness Lisette de Koning
Lottie Kuijt-Evers
Richelle van Rijk
Nicolet Theunissen
Mirjam Huis in ‘t Veld
8 May 2011
Ontology-Based Inference to Enhance Team Situation Awareness in Emergency Management Yasir Javed
Tony Norris
David Johnston
8 May 2011
Optimizing Mobile Social Media Interfaces for Rapid Internal Communication by Emergency Services Erkki Kurkinen
Helen Sullivan
Markku Häkkinen
Markku Lauttamus
2 May 2010 2
Preventing Violence, War and State Collapse: The Future of Conflict Early Warning and Response David Nyheim 19 February 2009 13
Queensland and the Ushahidi Ecosystem Jon Gosier 17 January 2011
Real-time Decision Making in Urgent Events: Modeling Options for Action Louise K. Comfort
Brian Colella
Mark Voortman
Scott Connelly
Jill L. Drury
Gary L. Klein
May 2013
Revealing unexpected effects of rescue robots’ team-membership in a virtual environment Corine H.G. Horsch
Nanja J. J. M. Smets
Mark A. Neerincx
Raymond H. Cuijpers
May 2013
SensePlace2: GeoTwitter analytics support for situational awareness Alan MacEachren
Anuj Jaiswal
Anthony Robinson
Scott Pezanowski
Alexander Savelyev
Prasenjit Mitra
Xiao Zhang
Justine Blanford
23 August 2011 55
Shared Situational Awareness in Emergency Management Mitigation and Response. John Harrald
Theresa Jefferson
6 January 2007
Situational Awareness in Mass Emergency: A Behavioral and Linguistic Analysis of Microblogged Communications Sarah Vieweg January 2012 14
Social Media and SMS in the Haiti Earthquake Julie Dugdale
Bartel Van de Walle
Corinna Koeppinghoff
17 April 2012 6
SocialEMIS: Improving Emergency Preparedness through Collaboration Ouejdane Mejri
Pierluigi Plebani
17 April 2012 1
Special Report Crowdsourcing Crisis Information in Disaster Affected Haiti Jessica Heinzelman
Carol Waters
29 September 2010
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